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Questions : 1 :: Can you explain the PDCA cycle and where testing fits in?
Software testing is an important part of the software development process. In normal software development there are four important steps, also referred to, in short, as the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check,...View answers
Questions : 2 :: What is the difference between white box, black box, and gray box testing?
Black box testing is a testing strategy based solely on requirements and specifications. Black box testing requires no knowledge of internal paths, structures, or implementation of the software being...View answers
Questions : 3 :: Can you explain usability testing?
Usability testing is a testing methodology where the end customer is asked to use the software to see if the product is easy to use, to see the customer's perception and task time. The best way to...View answers
Questions : 4 :: What are the categories of defects?
There are three main categories of defects:
Wrong: The requirements have been implemented incorrectly. This defect is a variance from the given specification.
Missing: There was a requirement...View answers
Questions : 5 :: How do you define a testing policy?
The following are the important steps used to define a testing policy in general. But it can change according to your organization. Let's discuss in detail the steps of implementing a testing policy...View answers
Questions : 6 :: On what basis is the acceptance plan prepared?
In any project the acceptance document is normally prepared using the following inputs. This can vary from company to company and from project to project.
Requirement document: This document...View answers
Questions : 7 :: What is configuration management?
Configuration management is the detailed recording and updating of information for hardware and software components. When we say components we not only mean source code. It can be tracking of changes...View answers
Questions : 8 :: How does a coverage tool work?
While doing testing on the actual product, the code coverage testing tool is run simultaneously. While the testing is going on, the code coverage tool monitors the executed statements of the source...View answers
Questions : 9 :: Which is the best testing model?
In real projects, tailored models are proven to be the best, because they share features from The Waterfall, Iterative, Evolutionary models, etc., and can fit into real life time projects. Tailored...View answers
Questions : 10 :: What is the difference between a defect and a failure?
When a defect reaches the end customer it is called a failure and if the defect is detected internally and resolved it's called a defect....View answers
Questions : 11 :: Should testing be done only after the build and execution phases are complete?
In traditional testing methodology testing is always done after the build and execution phases. But that's a wrong way of thinking because the earlier we catch a defect, the more cost effective it...View answers
Questions : 12 :: Are there more defects in the design phase or in the coding phase?
The design phase is more error prone than the execution phase. One of the most frequent defects which occur during design is that the product does not cover the complete requirements of the customer....View answers
Questions : 13 :: What group of teams can do software testing?
When it comes to testing everyone in the world can be involved right from the developer to the project manager to the customer. But below are different types of team groups which can be present in a...View answers
Questions : 14 :: What impact ratings have you used in your projects?
Normally, the impact ratings for defects are classified into three types:
Minor: Very low impact but does not affect operations on a large scale.
Major: Affects operations on a very large...View answers
Questions : 15 :: Does an increase in testing always improve the project?
No an increase in testing does not always mean improvement of the product, company, or project. In real test scenarios only 20% of test plans are critical from a business angle. Running those...View answers
Questions : 16 :: What's the relationship between environment reality and test phases?
Environment reality becomes more important as test phases start moving ahead. For instance, during unit testing you need the environment to be partly real, but at the acceptance phase you should have...View answers
Questions : 17 :: What are different types of verifications?
Verification is static type of s/w testing. It means code is not executed. The product is evaluated by going through the code. Types of verification are:
Walkthrough: Walkthroughs are informal,...View answers
Questions : 18 :: How do test documents in a project span across the software development lifecycle?
The following figure shows pictorially how test documents span across the software development lifecycle. The following discusses the specific testing documents in the lifecycle:
Questions : 19 :: Which test cases are written first: white boxes or black boxes?
Normally black box test cases are written first and white box test cases later. In order to write black box test cases we need the requirement document and, design or project plan. All these...View answers
Questions : 20 :: Explain Unit Testing, Integration Tests, System Testing and Acceptance Testing?
Unit testing - Testing performed on a single, stand-alone module or unit of code. Integration Tests - Testing performed on groups of modules to ensure that data and control are passed properly...View answers
Questions : 21 :: What is a test log?
The IEEE Std. 829-1998 defines a test log as a chronological record of relevant details about the execution of test cases. It's a detailed view of activity and events given in chronological manner....View answers
Questions : 22 :: Can you explain requirement traceability and its importance?
In most organizations testing only starts after the execution/coding phase of the project. But if the organization wants to really benefit from testing, then testers should get involved right from...View answers
Questions : 23 :: What does entry and exit criteria mean in a project?
Entry and exit criteria are a must for the success of any project. If you do not know where to start and where to finish then your goals are not clear. By defining exit and entry criteria you define...View answers
Questions : 24 :: What is the difference between verification and validation?
Verification is a review without actually executing the process while validation is checking the product with actual execution. For instance, code review and syntax check is verification while...View answers
Questions : 25 :: What is the difference between latent and masked defects?
A latent defect is an existing defect that has not yet caused a failure because the sets of conditions were never met. A masked defect is an existing defect that hasn't yet caused a failure just...View answers
Questions : 26 :: Can you explain calibration?
It includes tracing the accuracy of the devices used in the production, development and testing. Devices used must be maintained and calibrated to ensure that it is working in good order.
Questions : 27 :: What's the difference between alpha and beta testing?
Alpha and beta testing has different meanings to different people. Alpha testing is the acceptance testing done at the development site. Some organizations have a different visualization of alpha...View answers
Questions : 28 :: How does testing affect risk?
A risk is a condition that can result in a loss. Risk can only be controlled in different scenarios but not eliminated completely. A defect normally converts to a risk....View answers
Questions : 29 :: What is coverage and what are the different types of coverage techniques?
Coverage is a measurement used in software testing to describe the degree to which the source code is tested. There are three basic types of coverage techniques as shown in the following figure:...View answers
Questions : 30 :: A defect which could have been removed during the initial stage is removed in a later stage. How does this affect cost?
If a defect is known at the initial stage then it should be removed during that stage/phase itself rather than at some later stage. It's a recorded fact that if a defect is delayed for later phases...View answers
Questions : 31 :: What kind of input do we need from the end user to begin proper testing?
The product has to be used by the user. He is the most important person as he has more interest than anyone else in the project. From the user we need the following data:
The first thing we...View answers
Questions : 32 :: Can you explain the workbench concept?
In order to understand testing methodology we need to understand the workbench concept. A Workbench is a way of documenting how a specific activity has to be performed. A workbench is referred to as...View answers
Questions : 33 :: Can you explain the concept of defect cascading?
Defect cascading is a defect which is caused by another defect. One defect triggers the other defect. For instance, in the accounting application shown here there is a defect which leads to negative...View answers
Questions : 34 :: Can you explain cohabiting software?
When we install the application at the end client it is very possible that on the same PC other applications also exist. It is also very possible that those applications share common DLLs, resources...View answers
Questions : 35 :: What is the difference between pilot and beta testing?
The difference between pilot and beta testing is that pilot testing is nothing but actually using the product (limited to some users) and in beta testing we do not input real data, but it's...View answers
Questions : 36 :: What are the different strategies for rollout to end users?
There are four major ways of rolling out any project:
Pilot: The actual production system is installed at a single or limited number of users. Pilot basically means that the product is actually...View answers
Questions : 37 :: What's the difference between System testing and Acceptance testing?
Acceptance testing checks the system against the "Requirements." It is similar to System testing in that the whole system is checked but the important difference is the change in focus: System...View answers
Questions : 38 :: Can you explain regression testing and confirmation testing?
Regression testing is used for regression defects. Regression defects are defects occur when the functionality which was once working normally has stopped working. This is probably because of changes...View answers
Questions : 39 :: What is a software process?
A software process is a series of steps used to solve a problem. The following figure shows a pictorial view of how an organization has defined a way to solve risk problems. In the diagram we have...View answers
Questions : 40 :: What are the different cost elements involved in implementing a process in an organization?
Below are some of the cost elements involved in the implementing process:
Salary: This forms the major component of implementing any process, the salary of the employees. Normally while...View answers
Questions : 41 :: What is a maturity level?
A maturity level specifies the level of performance expected from an organization....View answers
Questions : 42 :: What is a model?
A model is nothing but best practices followed in an industry to solve issues and problems. Models are not made in a day but are finalized and realized by years of experience and continuous...View answers
Questions : 43 :: Can you explain process areas in CMMI?
A process area is the area of improvement defined by CMMI. Every maturity level consists of process areas. A process area is a group of practices or activities performed collectively to achieve a...View answers
Questions : 44 :: Can you explain tailoring?
As the name suggests, tailoring is nothing but changing an action to achieve an objective according to conditions. Whenever tailoring is done there should be adequate reasons for it. Remember when a...View answers
Questions : 45 :: Can you explain boundary value analysis?
In some projects there are scenarios where we need to do boundary value testing. For instance, let's say for a bank application you can withdraw a maximum of 25000 and a minimum of 100. So in...View answers
Questions : 46 :: Can you explain equivalence partitioning?
In equivalence partitioning we identify inputs which are treated by the system in the same way and produce the same results. You can see from the following figure applications TC1 and TC2 give the...View answers
Questions : 47 :: Can you explain random/monkey testing?
Random testing is sometimes called monkey testing. In Random testing, data is generated randomly often using a tool. For instance, the following figure shows how randomly-generated data is sent to...View answers
Questions : 48 :: What are semi-random test cases?
As the name specifies semi-random testing is nothing but controlling random testing and removing redundant test cases. So what we do is perform random test cases and equivalence partitioning to...View answers
Questions : 49 :: Can you explain a pair-wise defect?
Orthogonal array is a two-dimensional array in which if we choose any two columns in the array and all the combinations of numbers will appear in those columns. The following figure shows a simple...View answers
Questions : 50 :: What is negative and positive testing?
A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receive errors. A positive test is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification....View answers
Questions : 51 :: How did you define severity ratings in your project?
There are four types of severity ratings as shown in the table:
Severity 1 (showstoppers): These kinds of defects do not allow the application to move ahead. So they are also called showstopper...View answers
Questions : 52 :: Can you explain exploratory testing?
Exploratory testing is also called adhoc testing, but in reality it's not completely adhoc. Ad hoc testing is an unplanned, unstructured, may be even an impulsive journey through the system with the...View answers
Questions : 53 :: Can you explain decision tables?
As the name suggests they are tables that list all possible inputs and all possible outputs. A general form of decision table is shown in the following figure. Condition 1 through Condition N...View answers
Questions : 54 :: What are the different Ways of doing Black Box testing?
There are five methodologies most frequently used:
Top down according to budget
WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)
Guess and gut feeling
Early project data
TPA (Test Point...View answers
Questions : 55 :: Can you explain TPA analysis?
TPA is a technique used to estimate test efforts for black box testing. Inputs for TPA are the counts derived from function points. Below are the features of TPA:
Used to estimate only black box...View answers
Questions : 56 :: Can you explain the elementary process?
Software applications are a combination of elementary processes. When elementary processes come together they form a software application. There are two types of elementary processes:
Questions : 57 :: How do you estimate white box testing?
The testing estimates derived from function points are actually the estimates for white box testing. So in the following figure the man days are actually the estimates for white box testing of the...View answers
Questions : 58 :: Can you explain the various elements of function points FTR, ILF, EIF, EI, EO, EQ, and GSC?
File Type References (FTRs): An FTR is a file or data referenced by a transaction. An FTR should be an ILF or EIF. So count each ILF or EIF read during the process. If the EP is maintained as an...View answers
Questions : 59 :: Can you explain an Application boundary?
The first step in FPA is to define the boundary. There are two types of major boundaries:
Internal Application Boundary
External Application Boundary
The external application boundary can be...View answers
Questions : 60 :: Can you explain how TPA works?
There are three main elements which determine estimates for black box testing: size, test strategy, and productivity. Using all three elements we can determine the estimate for black box testing for...View answers
Questions : 61 :: Can you explain steps in function points?
Below are the steps in function points:
First Count ILF, EIF, EI, EQ, RET, DET, FTR and use the rating tables. After you have counted all the elements you will get the unadjusted function...View answers
Questions : 62 :: Can you explain function points?
Function points are a unit measure for software much like an hour is to measuring time, miles are to measuring distance or Celsius is to measuring temperature. Function Points are an ordinal measure...View answers